The City and Urban Life: Africa, Asia, Europe, the Americas, and the Pacific Islands. (Editor)
The story of the world's cities from the earliest to the present.b>
Honor Among Thieves: Captain Kidd, Henry Every, and the Pirate Democracy in the Indian Ocean
The extraordinary and historically accurate story of the sea raiders based at Saint Mary's Island from 1688 to 1723. Located immediately to the east of Madagascar, Saint Mary's was a perfect base for corsairs. The Indian Ocean and the Red Sea great treasure ships. Through these waters ships from India and China carried gold, spices, jewels, drugs, and silk to Arabia and Europe. Marauders from Saint Mary's seized booty worth hundreds of millions of dollars--at a time when $300 was an excellent yearly salary.
The voyage from Europe or America to the Indian Ocean meant months of sailing though some of the roughest waters in the world. Saint Mary's was a safe and comfortable haven, where the pirates formed a settled and independent community, with its own institutions and customs. Some men stopped at the island on their way to and from the hunting grounds, while others lived there for years. Of the many hundreds inhabiting the island, not one was captured and arrested.
By the 18th century, books had become less expensive, and a mass audience for good stories had developed. Sea captains captured by the pirates described their experiences while on board–as did scientists charting eastern waters for the Dutch East India Company. And hundreds of men eventually left for the French colony on Réunion Island, where the governor investigated their backgrounds. Excellent mariners and among the most successful criminals in human history, the men at Saint Mary's are also the only pirates about whom we have first-hand information. Fascinating in its own right, their story provides unique insights into the history of piracy.
Pirates! Brigands, Buccaneers, and Privateers in Fact, Fiction, and Legend.
Not limited to one region or one era, Pirates! recounts the history of sea raiders throughout the world. For thousands of years, pirate ships have cruised in every ocean–off the coasts of China, Japan, and India in the Pacific, the South China Sea, and the Indian Ocean as well as the Mediterranean and English Channel. Only a few years after Columbus reached the New World, pirates began to hunt for prey in the Caribbean and along the Atlantic and the Pacific coasts of the Americas.
Pirates! is scrupulously accurate. It describes the deeds of real-life captains, and it also recounts the tales about fictional villians in novels, plays and films. Pirates! in no way belittles pirate legends and lore. To the contrary, Pirates gives full credit both to the historical facts and to the works of the imagination that created pirate mythology.
A Brief History of the Caribbean: From the Arawak and the Carib to the Present
The Caribbean Sea is both a highway and a barrier. Some 40 million islanders share a common history, yet each island is distinctive. This complete history of the islands carries the story to the present day in five sections. Each section examines overall political and economic events, while at the same time paying attention to the varying experiences of each island.
(1) The native peoples died out during the initial Spanish conquest. The Spaniards soon left for Mexico and Peru, leaving the islands almost uninhabited.
(2) First as pirates preying on Spanish treasure fleets and later as colonizers, Britain, France, Holland, and Denmark moved in and fought for possession.
(3) From the mid-1600s, they planted sugar and imported African slaves to work the fields. Throughout the 18th century, the island returned immense profits to their colonial rulers. Many African slaves refused to accept their harsh lot and ran away or rebelled. However, only the Haitians succeed in expelling European slave owners and gaining independence.
(4) Except in Haiti, slavery survived until well into the 19th century. Cuba and Puerto Rico became the major sugar producers. The other islands–ruled from Europe--tended to stagnate.
(5) After World War II, tourism replaced sugar as the main source of income for most islands. The larger British colonies gained independence as separate nations. Although each island insists on its own distinctive identity, they have joined together to solve common problems through the Caribbean Community and other shared institutions.
Smokeless Tobacco in the Western World, 1550-1950.
Since its discovery in the Americas, the tobacco plant has been carried throughout the world, and tobacco has been used in every region. Snuff and chewing tobacco were among the first products developed. In France and Italy, powdered snuff was the most popular way of enjoying tobacco until the 1840s, while chewing was favored until about 1900 by both men and women in the U.S.
Includes comprehensive statistics for the sale and consumption of tobacco in all its forms. Analyzes the development and evolution of the various types of tobacco and tobacco products. Examines historical and literary evidence to describe the economic, social, and psychological factors influencing changes in consumption. Describes governmental policies towards cultivation and marketing in the U.S. and Europe. Presents the surviving evidence about the use of tobacco in Persia, the Ottoman Empire, India, Japan and China.
Caste, Power, and Law: Social Conflict in Fourteenth-Century Montpellier
Montpellier is a major city in the Languedoc region of southern France. During the 14th Century, two factions struggled for control--the town government of 12 "consuls" and the representatives of the "People" (populares). Their conflict cannot be interpreted in terms of class-struggle. Both groups were led by men of substance, distanced from the rest of the urban populace by wealth and status.
Although both factions used violence on occasion, ultimately the conflict was resolved through arbitration. Henceforth, the consuls were required to raise revenues only through public assessments and only for specified purposes. Written definitions of exemption were drawn up, and these excluded from taxes fewer inhabitants than in northern France.
From the tenth century, the social elites of southern France had turned to arbitrators to settle disputes; it had become their custom to compromise instead of trying to crush their opponents. Moreover, peaceful resolution was aided by the royal officials in the region. Most were recruited from the same southern French social elite as the consuls and the People. Thus economic and personal pressures deterred them from imposing royal control over the town and region.
Royal judges as well as the representatives of both factions were schooled in Roman law at the University of Montpellier. The adoption of Roman law did not, as has been said, strengthen central governmental control. Indeed, it had the opposite effect, for the many lawyers trained in its use could manipulate it to block royal actions.